The following discussion and analysis of the financial condition and results of operations of Doma should be read together with the audited consolidated financial statements as of
December 31, 2021and 2020 and for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020, and 2019 together with the related notes thereto, contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (this "Annual Report"). Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations generally includes tables with 2 year financial performance, accompanied by narrative for 2021. For further discussion of prior period financial results, please refer to our Registration Statement on Form S-1 (No. 333-258942), as amended, filed with the SECon September 3, 2021and declared effective on September 8, 2021. This discussion may contain forward-looking statements based upon current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties and should be read in conjunction with the disclosures and information contained in "Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements" in this Annual Report. Our actual results may differ materially from those projected in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth under Part I, Item 1A "Risk Factors" or in other parts of this Annual Report. Certain amounts may not foot due to rounding. All forward-looking statements in this Annual Report are based on information available to us as of the date hereof, and we assume no obligation to update any such forward-looking statements to reflect future events or circumstances, except as required by law. Unless the context otherwise requires, references to "company," "Company," "Doma," "we," "us," "our" and similar terms refer to Doma Holdings, Inc.(f/k/a Capitol Investment Corp.V) and its consolidated subsidiaries. References to "Capitol" refer to our predecessor company prior to the consummation of the Business Combination. References to "Old Doma" refer to Old Doma prior to the Business Combination and to States Title Holding, Inc.("States Title"), the wholly owned subsidiary of Doma, upon the consummation of the Business Combination.
Our Business Model
Today, we primarily originate, underwrite, and provide title, escrow and
settlement services for the two most prevalent transaction types in the
residential real estate market: purchase and refinance transactions. We operate
and report our business through two complementary reporting segments,
Distribution and Underwriting. See “-Basis of Presentation” below.
Our Distribution segment reflects the sale of our products and services, other than underwriting and insurance services reflected in our Underwriting segment, that we provide through our captive title agents and agencies ("Direct Agents"). We market our products and services through two channels to appeal to our referral partners and ultimately reach our customers, the individuals purchasing a new home or refinancing their existing mortgage: •Doma Enterprise - we target partnerships with national lenders and mortgage originators that maintain centralized lending operations. Once a partnership has been established, we integrate our Doma Intelligence platform with the partner's production systems, to enable frictionless order origination and fulfillment. Substantially all Doma Enterprise orders are underwritten by Doma. •Local Markets ("Local") - we target partnerships with realtors, attorneys and non-centralized loan originators via a 103-branch footprint across ten states as of
December 31, 2021. For the year ended December 31, 2021, approximately 90% of our lender and owner policies from our Local channel were underwritten by Doma, while the remaining share was underwritten by third-party underwriters. Our Underwriting segment reflects the sale of our underwriting and insurance services. These services are integrated with our Direct Agents channel and other non-captive title and escrow agents in the market ("Third-Party Agents") through our captive title insurance carrier. For customers sourced through the Third-Party Agents channel, we retain a portion of the title premium (approximately 16%) in exchange for underwriting risk to our balance sheet. The Third-Party Agents channel includes the title underwriting and insurance services we provide to Lennar, a related party, for its home builder transactions. The financial results of our Direct Agents channel impact both our Distribution and Underwriting reporting segments, whereas the results from the Third-Party Agents channel impact only the Underwriting reporting segment. 60 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents Our expenses generally consist of direct fulfillment expenses related to closing a transaction and insuring the risk, customer acquisition costs related to acquiring new business, and other operating expenses as described below: •Direct fulfillment expenses - comprised of direct labor and direct non-labor expenses. Direct labor expenses refer to payroll costs associated with employees whodirectly contribute to the opening and closing of an order. Some examples of direct labor expenses include title and escrow services, closing services, and customer service. Direct non-labor expenses refer to non-payroll expenses that are closely linked with order volume, such as provision for claims, title examination expense, office supplies, and premium and other related taxes. •Customer acquisition costs - this category is comprised of sales payroll, sales commissions, customer success payroll, sales-related travel and entertainment, and an allocated portion of corporate marketing. •Other operating expenses - all other expenses that do not directly contribute to the fulfillment or acquisition of an order or policy are considered other operating expenses. This category is predominately comprised of research and development costs, corporate support expenses, occupancy, and other general and administrative expenses. We expect to continue to invest in our Doma Intelligence platform as well as organic and inorganic growth opportunities in order to remain competitive with existing large-scale industry incumbents whoare well financed and have significant resources to defend their existing market positions. Over time, we plan to use our cash flows to invest in customer acquisition, research and development, and new product offerings, to further improve revenue growth and accelerate the elimination of the friction and expense of closing a residential real estate transaction. Basis of Presentation
We report results for our two operating segments:
•Distribution - our Distribution segment reflects our Direct Agents operations of acquiring customer orders and providing title and escrow services for real estate closing transactions. We acquire customers through our Local and Doma Enterprise customer referral channels. •Underwriting - our Underwriting segment reflects the results of our title insurance underwriting business, including policies referred through our Direct Agents and Third-Party Agents channels. The referring agents retain approximately 84% of the policy premiums in exchange for their services. The retention rate varies by state and agent. Costs are allocated to the segments to arrive at adjusted gross profit, our segment measure of profit and loss. Our accounting policies for segments are the same as those applied to our consolidated financial statements, except as described below under "-Key Components of Revenues and Expenses." Inter-segment revenues and expenses are eliminated in consolidation. See Note 7 in our consolidated financial statements for a summary of our segment results and a reconciliation between segment adjusted gross profit and our consolidated loss before income taxes.
Significant Events and Transactions
The Business Combination
On the Closing Date,
Capitolconsummated the Business Combination with Old Doma, pursuant to the Agreement. In connection with the closing of the Business Combination, Old Doma changed its name to States Title Holding, Inc., Capitolchanged its name to Doma Holdings, Inc.("Doma") and Old Doma became a wholly owned subsidiary of Doma. Doma continues the existing business operations of Old Doma as a publicly traded company. Refer to Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements for additional details on the Business Combination. As a result of the Business Combination, we became the operating successor to an SEC-registered and New York Stock Exchange-listed shell company. Becoming public has required us to hire additional personnel and implement procedures and processes to address public company regulatory requirements and practices. Also, we 61
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents have incurred additional annual expenses as a public company for, among other things, directors' and officers' liability insurance, director fees, and additional internal and external accounting, legal, and administrative resources.
Impact of COVID-19 and Other Macroeconomic Trends
March 11, 2020, the World Health Organizationdeclared COVID-19, the disease caused by the novel coronavirus, a pandemic. COVID-19 has resulted in significant macroeconomic impacts and market disruptions, particularly as federal, state, and local governments enacted emergency measures intended to combat the spread of the virus, including shelter-in-place orders, travel limitations, quarantine periods and social distancing. In response, we took appropriate measures to ensure the health and safety of our employees, customers and partners, including work-from-home policies. Depending on the location and timing, some of these measures still remain in place today. We operate in the real estate industry and our business volumes are directly impacted by market trends for mortgage refinancing transactions, existing real estate purchase transactions, and new real estate purchase transactions, particularly in the residential segment of the market. Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic initially led to a material decline in purchase transactions. Subsequent U.S.federal stimulus measures, including interest rate reductions by the Federal Reserve, and local regulatory initiatives, such as permitting remote notarization, led to a quick recovery for the real estate industry and resulted in an increase in mortgage refinancing and purchase volumes, which we believe benefited our business model. These initiatives have also led to a greater demand for homes, higher home prices, and record low home inventories. While real estate transactions have largely returned to or exceeded pre-pandemic levels, we continue to monitor economic and regulatory developments closely as we navigate the volatility and uncertainty created by the pandemic. Demand for mortgages tends to correlate closely with changes in interest rates, meaning that our order trends are likely to be impacted by future changes in interest rates. However, we believe that our current, low market share and disruptive approach to title insurance, escrow, and closing services will enable us to gain market share, which in turn should mitigate the risk to our revenue growth trends relative to industry incumbents.
The North American Title Acquisition
insurance underwriting business, and its third-party title insurance agency
business, which was operated under its North American Title Company brand
(collectively, the “Acquired Business”), for total stock and deferred cash
The North American Title Acquisition provided us with insurance licenses and an agency network across
the United States, as well as a substantial data set to accelerate our machine intelligence technology. This acquisition marked a significant milestone for Doma in achieving national scale and licensure in pursuit of our long-term growth strategy. Whereas we generated minimal revenue prior to the North American Title Acquisition, following its consummation we began to operate our business with a broad distribution footprint and data that enabled us to accelerate the rollout of our Doma Intelligence platform. The North American Title Acquisition also resulted in our recording of $111.5 millionin goodwill and $61.4 millionin acquired marketable securities. Since the North American Title Acquisition, we have implemented several initiatives to integrate and realign the operations of the Acquired Business. This includes transforming the Acquired Business's retail agency operations by streamlining our physical branch footprint, consolidating branch back office functions into a common corporate operation, and implementing a common production platform across all our branches. We continue to invest in the development and rollout of the Doma Intelligence platform across our Local branch footprint. We expect to realize significant cost savings over time as manual processes are replaced with our proprietary machine learning platform and data science-driven approach to title and closing services. The benefits of this effort, particularly on margin growth, are likely to be realized gradually in future reporting periods. As a result, our recent results of operations, including for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020, and 2019 may not be indicative of our results for future periods. 62 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents Key Operating and Financial Indicators
We regularly review several key operating and financial indicators to evaluate
our performance and trends and inform management’s budgets, financial
projections and strategic decisions.
The following table presents our key operating and financial indicators, as well as the relevant generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP") measures, for the periods indicated: Year Ended 2021 2020 (in thousands, except for open and closed order numbers) Key operating data: Opened orders 178,689 136,873 Closed orders 136,428 92,389 GAAP financial data: Revenue(1)
$ 558,043 $ 409,814Gross profit(2) $ 103,261 $ 85,830Net loss $ (113,056) $ (35,103)Non-GAAP financial data(3): Retained premiums and fees $ 259,598 $ 189,671Adjusted gross profit $ 113,582 $ 91,645Ratio of adjusted gross profit to retained premiums and fees 44 % 48 % Adjusted EBITDA $ (71,592) $ (18,986)_________________
(1)Revenue is comprised of (i) net premiums written, (ii) escrow, other
title-related fees and other, and (iii) investment, dividend and other income.
Net loss is made up of the components of revenue and expenses. For more
information about measures appearing in our consolidated income statements,
refer to “-Key Components of Revenue and Expenses-Revenue” below.
(2)Gross profit, calculated in accordance with GAAP, is calculated as total revenue, minus premiums retained by Third-Party Agents, direct labor expense (including mainly personnel expense for certain employees involved in the direct fulfillment of policies) and direct non-labor expense (including mainly title examination expense, provision for claims, and depreciation and amortization). In our consolidated income statements, depreciation and amortization is recorded under the "other operating expenses" caption. (3)Retained premiums and fees, adjusted gross profit and adjusted EBITDA are non-GAAP financial measures. Refer to "-Non-GAAP Financial Measures" below for additional information and reconciliations of these measures to the most closely comparable GAAP financial measures.
Opened and closed orders
Opened orders represent the number of orders placed for title insurance and/or escrow services (which includes the disbursement of funds, signing of documents and recording of the transaction with the county office) through our Direct Agents, typically in connection with a home purchase or mortgage refinancing transaction. An order may be opened upon an indication of interest in a specific property from a customer and may be cancelled by the customer before or after the signing of a purchase or loan agreement. Closed orders represent the number of opened orders for title insurance and/or escrow services that were successfully fulfilled in each period with the issuance of a title insurance policy and/or provision of escrow services. Opened and closed orders do not include orders or referrals for title insurance from our Third-Party Agents. For avoidance of doubt, a closed order for a home purchase transaction typically results in the issuance of two title insurance policies, whereas a refinance transaction typically results in the issuance of one title insurance policy. We review opened orders as a leading indicator of our Direct Agents revenue pipeline and closed orders as a direct indicator of Direct Agents revenue for the concurrent period, and believe these measures are useful to investors for the same reasons. We believe that the relationship between opened and closed orders will remain relatively consistent over time, and that opened order growth is generally a reliable indicator of future financial performance. However, degradation in the ratio of opened orders to closed orders may be a leading indicator of adverse macroeconomic or real estate market trends. 63 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents Retained premiums and fees Retained premiums and fees, a non-GAAP financial measure, is defined as total revenue under GAAP minus premiums retained by Third-Party Agents. See "-Non-GAAP Financial Measures" below for a reconciliation of our retained premiums and fees to gross profit, the most closely comparable GAAP measure, and additional information about the limitations of our non-GAAP measures. Our business strategy is focused on leveraging our Doma Intelligence platform to provide an overall improved customer and referral partner experience and to drive time and expense efficiencies principally in our Direct Agents channel. In our Third-Party Agents channel in contrast, we provide our underwriting expertise and balance sheet to insure the risk on policies referred by such Third-Party Agents and, for that service, we typically receive approximately 16% of the premium for the policy we underwrite. As such, we use retained premiums and fees, which is net of the impact of premiums retained by Third-Party Agents, as an important measure of the earning power of our business and our future growth trends, and believe it is useful to investors for the same reasons.
Adjusted gross profit
Adjusted gross profit, a non-GAAP financial measure, is defined as gross profit (loss) under GAAP, adjusted to exclude the impact of depreciation and amortization. See "-Non-GAAP Financial Measures" below for a reconciliation of our adjusted gross profit to gross profit, the most closely comparable GAAP measure and additional information about the limitations of our non-GAAP measures. Management views adjusted gross profit as an important indicator of our underlying profitability and efficiency. As we generate more business that is serviced through our Doma Intelligence platform, we expect to reduce fulfillment costs as our direct labor expense per order continues to decline, and we expect the adjusted gross profit per transaction to grow faster than retained premiums and fees per transaction over the long term.
Ratio of adjusted gross profit to retained premiums and fees
Ratio of adjusted gross profit to retained premiums and fees, a non-GAAP measure, expressed as a percentage, is calculated by dividing adjusted gross profit by retained premiums and fees. Both the numerator and denominator are net of the impact of premiums retained by Third-Party Agents because that is a cost related to our Underwriting segment over which we have limited control, as Third-Party Agents customarily retain approximately 84% of the premiums related to a title insurance policy referral pursuant to the terms of long-term contracts. We view the ratio of adjusted gross profit to retained premiums and fees as an important indicator of our operating efficiency and the impact of our machine-learning capabilities, and believe it is useful to investors for the same reasons. We expect improvement to our ratio of adjusted gross profit to retained premiums and fees over the long term, reflecting the continued reduction in our average fulfillment costs per order. Adjusted EBITDA Adjusted EBITDA, a non-GAAP financial measure, is defined as net income (loss) before interest, income taxes and depreciation and amortization, and further adjusted to exclude the impact of stock-based compensation, COVID-related severance costs and the change in fair value of Warrant and Sponsor Covered Shares liabilities. See "-Non-GAAP Financial Measures" below for a reconciliation of our adjusted EBITDA to net loss, the most closely comparable GAAP measure and additional information about the limitations of our non-GAAP measures.
We review adjusted EBITDA as an important measure of our recurring and
underlying financial performance, and believe it is useful to investors for the
64 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents Key Components of Revenues and Expenses
Net premiums written
We generate net premiums by underwriting title insurance policies and recognize premiums in full upon the closing of the underlying transaction. For some of our Third-Party Agents, we also accrue premium revenue for title insurance policies we estimate to have been issued in the current period but reported to us by the Third-Party Agent in a subsequent period. See "-Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates- Accrued net premiums written from Third-Party Agent referrals" below for further explanation of this accrual. For the years ended 2021 and 2020, the average time lag between the issuing of these policies by our Third-Party Agents and the reporting of these policies or premiums to us has been approximately three months. Net premiums written is inclusive of the portion of premiums retained by Third-Party Agents, which is recorded as an expense, as described below.
To reduce the risk associated with our underwritten insurance policies, we
utilize reinsurance programs to limit our maximum loss exposure. Under our
reinsurance treaties, we cede the premiums on the underlying policies in
exchange for a ceding commission from the reinsurer and our net premiums written
exclude such ceded premiums.
Our principal reinsurance quota share agreement covers instantly underwritten policies from refinance and home equity line of credit transactions under which we historically ceded 100% of the written premium of each covered policy during 2019, 2020, and during the period from
January 1, 2021through February 23, 2021. Pursuant to a renewed agreement, which became effective on February 24, 2021, we cede only 25% of the written premium on such instantly underwritten policies, up to a total reinsurance coverage limit of $80.0 millionin premiums reinsured, after which we retain 100% of the written premium on instantly underwritten policies. This reduction in ceding percentage has resulted in higher net premiums written per transaction when compared to prior period results. Refer to Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements above for additional details on our reinsurance treaties.
Escrow, other title-related fees and other
Escrow fees and other title-related fees are charged for managing the closing of real estate transactions, including the processing of funds on behalf of the transaction participants, gathering and recording the required closing documents, providing notary services, and other real estate or title-related activities. Other fees relate to various ancillary services we provide, including fees for rendering a cashier's check, document preparation fees, homeowner's association letter fees, inspection fees, lien letter fees and wire fees. We also recognize ceding commissions received in connection with reinsurance treaties, to the extent the amount of such ceding commissions exceeds reinsurance-related costs. This revenue item is most directly associated with our Distribution segment. For segment-level reporting, agent premiums retained by our Distribution segment are recorded as revenue under the "escrow, other title-related fees and other" caption of our segment income statements, while our Underwriting segment records a corresponding expense for insurance policies issued by us. The impact of these internal transactions is eliminated upon consolidation.
Investment, dividends and other income
Investment, dividends and other income are mainly generated from our investment portfolio. We primarily invest in fixed income securities, mainly composed of corporate debt obligations,
U.S.government agency obligations, certificates of deposit, U.S.Treasuries and mortgage loans.
Premiums retained by Third-Party Agents
When customers are referred to us and we underwrite a policy, the referring Third-Party Agent retains a significant portion of the premium, which typically amounts to approximately 84% of the premium. The portion of premiums retained by Third-Party Agents is recorded as an expense. These referral expenses relate exclusively to 65
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents our Underwriting segment. As we continue to grow our Direct Agents channel relative to our Third-Party Agents channel, we expect that premiums retained by Third-Party Agents will decline as a percentage of revenue over time. For segment-level reporting, premiums retained by our Direct Agents (which are recorded as Distribution segment revenue) are recorded as part of "premiums retained by agents" expense for our Underwriting segment. The impact of these internal transactions is eliminated upon consolidation.
Title examination expense
Title examination expense is incurred in connection with the search and
examination of public information prior to the issuance of title insurance
Provision for claims
Provision for claims expense is viewed by management to be comprised of three
components: IBNR reserves, known claims loss and loss adjustment expense
reserves, and escrow-related losses.
IBNR is a loss reserve that primarily reflects the sum of expected losses for unreported claims. The expense is calculated by applying a rate (the loss provision rate) to total title insurance premiums. The loss provision rate is determined at the beginning of each year based in part upon an assessment performed by an independent actuarial firm utilizing generally accepted actuarial methods. The assessment also takes account of industry trends, the regulatory environment and geographic considerations and is updated during the year based on developments. This loss provision rate is set to provide for losses on current year policies. Due to our long claim exposure, our provision for claims periodically includes amounts of adverse or positive claims development on policies issued in prior years, when claims on such policies are higher or lower than initially expected.
Based on the risk profile of premium vintages over time and based upon the
projections of an independent actuarial firm, we build or release reserves
related to our older policies. Our IBNR may increase as a proportion of our
revenue as we continue to increase the proportion of our business serviced
through our Doma Intelligence platform, though we believe it will decrease over
the long term as our predictive machine intelligence technology produces
Known claims loss and loss adjustment expense reserves is an expense that reflects the best estimate of the remaining cost to resolve a claim, based on the information available at the time. In practice, most claims do not settle for the initial known claims provision; rather, as new information is developed during the course of claims administration, the initial estimates are revised, sometimes downward and sometimes upward. This additional development is provided for in the actuarial projection of IBNR, but it is not allocable to specific claims. Actual costs that are incurred in the claims administration are booked to loss adjustment expense, which is primarily comprised of legal expenses associated with investigating and settling a claim. Escrow-related losses are primarily attributable to clerical errors that arise during the escrow process and caused by the settlement agent. As the proportion of our orders processed through our Doma Intelligence platform continues to increase, we expect escrow-related losses to decline over time.
Personnel costs include base salaries, employee benefits, bonuses paid to
employees, and payroll taxes. This expense is primarily driven by the average
number of employees and our hiring activities in a given period.
In our presentation and reconciliation of segment results and our calculation of gross profit, we classify personnel costs as either direct or indirect expenses, reflecting the activities performed by each employee. Direct personnel costs relate to employees whose job function is directly related to our fulfillment activities, including underwriters, closing agents, escrow agents, funding agents, and title and curative agents, and are included in the calculation of our segment adjusted gross profit. Indirect personnel costs relate to employees whose roles do not directly support our transaction fulfillment activities, including sales agents, training specialists and customer success agents, segment management, research and development and other information technology personnel, and corporate support staff. 66 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents Other operating expenses Other operating expenses are comprised of occupancy, maintenance and utilities, product taxes (for example, state taxes on premiums written), professional fees (including legal, audit and other third-party consulting costs), software licenses and sales tools, travel and entertainment costs, and depreciation and amortization, among other costs.
Change in fair value of Warrant and Sponsor Covered Shares liabilities
Change in fair value of Warrant and Sponsor Covered Shares liabilities consists of unrealized gains and losses as a result of recording our Warrants and Sponsor Covered Shares to fair value at the end of each reporting period.
Income tax expense
Although we are in a consolidated net loss position and report our federal income taxes as a consolidated tax group, we incur state income taxes in certain jurisdictions where we have profitable operations. Additionally, we incur mandatory minimum state income taxes in certain jurisdictions. Also, we have recognized deferred tax assets but have offset them with a full valuation allowance, reflecting substantial uncertainty as to their recoverability in future periods. Until we report at least three years of profitability, we may not be able to realize the tax benefits of these deferred tax assets.
Results of Operations
We discuss our historical results of operations below, on a consolidated basis and by segment. Past financial results are not indicative of future results. As previously mentioned, our results of operations include tables with two years of financial performance, accompanied by narrative for 2021 as compared to 2020. For further discussion of prior period financial results, refer to our Registration Statement on Form S-1 (No. 333-258942), as amended, filed with the
SECon September 3, 2021and declared effective on September 8, 2021. 67
Table of Contents
The following table sets forth a summary of our consolidated results of
operations for the periods indicated, and the changes between periods.
Year Ended December 31, 2021 2020 $ Change % Change (in thousands, except percentages) Revenues: Net premiums written
$ 475,352 $ 345,608 $ 129,74438 % Escrow, other title-related fees and other 79,585 61,275 18,310 30 % Investment, dividend and other income 3,106 2,931 175 6 % Total revenues $ 558,043 $ 409,814 $ 148,22936 %
Premiums retained by Third-Party Agents
$ 298,445 $ 220,143 $ 78,30236 % Title examination expense 22,137 16,204 5,933 37 % Provision for claims 21,335 15,337 5,998 39 % Personnel costs 238,134 143,526 94,608 66 % Other operating expenses 79,951 43,285 36,666 85 % Total operating expenses $ 660,002 $ 438,495 $ 221,50751 % Loss from operations (101,959) (28,681) (73,278) 255 % Other (expense) income: Change in fair value of Warrant and Sponsor Covered Shares liabilities 6,691 - 6,691 * Interest expense (16,861) (5,579) (11,282) 202 % Loss before income taxes (112,129) (34,260) (77,869) 227 % Income tax expense $ (927) $ (843) $ (84)10 % Net loss $ (113,056) $ (35,103) $ (77,953)222 %
* = Not presented as prior period amount is zero
Net premiums written. Net premiums written increased by
$129.7 million, or 38%, for the year ended December 31, 2021compared to the same period in the prior year, driven by a 46% increase in premiums from our Direct Agents channel and a 35% increase in premiums from our Third-Party Agents channel. For the year ended December 31, 2021, Direct Agents premium growth was driven by closed order growth of 48%. Closed order growth overall increased due to new customer and referral partner acquisitions, increased wallet share with existing referral partners, an expanding geographical footprint, and market conditions resulting in the higher volume of refinance orders. Closed order growth was offset by lower average premiums per Direct Agent order of 2%, due to a higher share of refinance orders during the course of the year. Third-Party Agent growth reflects the results of management's continued efforts to increase wallet share capture from existing Third-Party Agents as well as efforts to generate new agent relationships to accelerate growth. The rise in premiums was also driven by an overall increase in market activity due to the low interest rate environment. Escrow, other title-related fees and other. Escrow, other title-related fees and other increased $18.3 million, or 30%, for the year ended December 31, 2021compared to the same period in the prior year, driven by the corresponding closed order growth, offset by the higher mix of Doma Enterprise closed orders, which carry a lower price point as compared to the Local channel. 68 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents Investment, dividend and other income. Investment, dividend and other income increased $0.2 millionor 6% for the year ended December 31, 2021compared to the same period in the prior year, primarily due to one-time realized gains on investments from portfolio rebalancing.
Premiums retained by Third-Party Agents. Premiums retained by third-party agents
compared to the same period in the prior year. The increase was driven
principally by the growth in underwritten policies referred by Third-Party
Agents, and there was no material change in average commissions paid to our
Title examination expense. Title examination expense increased by
$5.9 million, or 37%, for the year ended December 31, 2021compared to the same periods in the prior year, principally due to growth in Direct Agent closed orders and premiums written. Provision for claims. Provision for claims increased by $6.0 million, or 39%, for the year ended December 31, 2021compared to the same period in the prior year primarily due to new business written premiums from the corresponding periods. The provision for claims, expressed as a percentage of net premiums written, was 4.5% and 4.4% for the year ended December 31, 2021and 2020, respectively. The reported loss emergence in both periods on policies issued in prior years was lower than expected. Personnel costs. Personnel costs increased by $94.6 million, or 66%, for the year ended December 31, 2021compared to the same period in the prior year, due to investments in direct labor and customer acquisition, the expansion of our corporate support functions to enhance public company readiness, and an increase in operations and management staff supporting the direct agents channel as the organization invests in driving growth of Doma Intelligence-enabled closings. Other operating expenses. Other operating expenses increased by $36.7 million, or 85%, for the year ended December 31, 2021compared to the same period in the prior year, driven by 116% higher corporate support expenses to operate as a public company, higher operating expenses to support revenue growth such as hardware and software purchases, higher amortization expenses related to investments in the development of the Doma Intelligence platform, and higher amortization of intangibles related to our rebranding to "Doma." Depreciation and amortization increased by $4.5 million, or 77%, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2021compared to the same period in the prior year. Change in fair value of Warrant and Sponsor Covered Shares liabilities. The change in the fair value of Warrant and Sponsor Covered Shares (as defined in Note 2) liabilities increased by $6.7 millionfor the year ended December 31, 2021compared to the same period in the prior year due to the addition of these liabilities from the Business Combination in 2021. Interest expense. Interest expense increased by $11.3 million, or 202%, for the year ended December 31, 2021compared to the same period in the prior year, due to a higher amount of debt outstanding as well as a higher effective interest rate in 2021, which is a result of the funding of the new $150.0 millionSenior Debt facility during the first quarter of 2021. 69 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents Supplemental Segment Results Discussion - Year Ended December 31, 2021Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2020The following table sets forth a summary of the results of operations for our Distribution and Underwriting segments for the years indicated. See "-Basis of Presentation" above. Year Ended December 31, 2021
Distribution Underwriting Eliminations Consolidated Distribution Underwriting Eliminations Consolidated (in thousands) Net premiums written $ -
$ 476,328 $ (976) $ 475,352$ - $ 345,608$ - $ 345,608Escrow, other title-related fees and other (1) 177,069 3,520 (101,004) 79,585 129,590 2,099 (70,414) 61,275 Investment, dividend and other income 205 2,901 - 3,106 699 2,232 - 2,931 Total revenue $ 177,274 $ 482,749
Premiums retained by agents
- 400,425 (101,980) 298,445 - 290,557 (70,414) 220,143 Direct labor (3) 81,204 8,412 - 89,616 55,334 6,820 - 62,154 Other direct costs (4) 23,726 11,339 - 35,065 16,912 3,623 - 20,535 Provision for title claim losses 2,257 19,078 - 21,335 1,415 13,922 - 15,337 Adjusted gross profit (5)
$ 70,087 $ 43,495$ - $ 113,582 $ 56,628 $ 35,017$ - $ 91,645__________________
(1)Includes fee income from closings, escrow, title exams, ceding commission
income, as well as premiums retained by Direct Agents.
(2)This expense represents a deduction from the net premiums written for the amounts that are retained by Direct Agents and Third-Party Agents as compensation for their efforts to generate premium income for our Underwriting segment. The impact of premiums retained by our Direct Agents and the expense for reinsurance or co-insurance procured on Direct Agent sourced premiums are eliminated in consolidation.
(3)Includes all compensation costs, including salaries, bonuses, incentive
payments, and benefits, for personnel involved in the direct fulfillment of
title and/or escrow services.
(4)Includes title examination expense, office supplies, and premium and other
(5)See “-Non-GAAP Financial Measures-Adjusted gross profit” below for a
reconciliation of consolidated adjusted gross profit, which is a non-GAAP
measure, to our gross profit, the most closely comparable GAAP financial
Distribution segment revenue increased by
$47.0 million, or 36%, for the year ended December 31, 2021compared to the same period in the prior year driven by the closed order growth of 48% discussed above. Revenue from closed order growth was somewhat offset by the higher mix of Doma Enterprise closed orders, which carry a lower price point as compared to the Local channel. Underwriting segment revenue increased by $132.8 million, or 38%, for the year ended December 31, 2021compared to the same period in the prior year, reflecting significant growth in title policies underwritten from both Direct and Third-Party Agents. Distribution segment adjusted gross profit improved $13.5 million, or 24%, for the year ended December 31, 2021compared to the same period in the prior year, driven principally by closed order growth offset by the higher mix of Doma Enterprise closed orders, which carry a lower margin as compared to the Local channel. Underwriting segment adjusted gross profit increased by $8.5 million, or 24%, for the year ended December 31, 2021compared to the same period in the prior year, reflecting increased demand across all channels of the business offset by increases in direct expenses.
Supplemental Key Operating and Financial Indicators Results Discussion – Year
The following table presents our key operating and financial indicators, including our non-GAAP financial measures, for the periods indicated, and the changes between periods. This discussion should be read only as a supplement to the discussion of our GAAP results above. See "-Non-GAAP Financial Measures" below for important information about the non-GAAP financial measures presented below and their reconciliation to the respective most closely comparable GAAP measures. 70
Table of Contents Year Ended December 31, 2021 2020 $ Change % Change (in thousands, except percentages and open and closed order numbers) Opened orders 178,689 136,873 41,816 31 % Closed orders 136,428 92,389 44,039 48 % Retained premiums and fees
$ 259,598 $ 189,671 $ 69,92737 % Adjusted gross profit 113,582 91,645 21,937 24 % Ratio of adjusted gross profit to retained premiums and fees 44 % 48 % (4) p.p (8) % Adjusted EBITDA $ (71,592) $ (18,986) $ (52,606)277 % Opened and closed orders For the year ended December 31, 2021, we opened 178,689 orders and closed 136,428 orders, an increase of 31% and 48%, respectively, over the same period in the prior year. Closed orders increased 387% year over year in our Doma Enterprise channel due to new customer and referral partner acquisitions, increased wallet share with existing referral partners, and an expanded geographical footprint. Closed orders decreased slightly by 1% in our Local channel in the year ended December 31, 2021compared to the same period in the prior year due to the contracting refinance market that occurred during the second half of 2021, which was partially offset by growth in purchase orders.
Retained premiums and fees
Retained premiums and fees increased by
$69.9 million, or 37%, for the year ended December 31, 2021compared to the same periods in the prior year, driven by strong closed order and title policy growth across Direct and Third-Party Agents, respectively. Adjusted gross profit Adjusted gross profit increased by $21.9 million, or 24%, for the year ended December 31, 2021compared to the same period in the prior year, due to growth in retained premiums and fees of $69.9 millionin the same period. The growth in retained premiums and fees was partially offset by investments in fulfillment infrastructure to support future growth.
Ratio of adjusted gross profit to retained premiums and fees
The ratio of adjusted gross profit to retained premiums and fees decreased 4 percentage points for the year ended
December 31, 2021compared to the same period in the prior year due to the higher mix of Doma Enterprise closed orders, which carry a lower price point as compared to the Local channel. Contributing to the decrease in the ratio was higher direct labor expenses of $27.5 million, or 44%, for the year ended December 31, 2021compared to the same period in the prior year. The rise in direct labor expenses exceeded retained premium and fees growth as fulfillment labor was hired in advance of future volume growth, and the organization experienced redundancies in fulfillment staff as it migrated Local volume to Doma Intelligence.
Adjusted EBITDA decreased by
$52.6 million, or 277%, to negative $71.6 millionfor the year ended December 31, 2021, driven by $74.6 millionof higher operating costs from investments in corporate support functions to successfully operate as a public company, research and development, and operations and management staff to support growth and the transformation of the Direct Agents channel. This was offset by a $21.9 millionimprovement in adjusted gross profit.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
The non-GAAP financial measures described in this prospectus should be
considered only as supplements to results prepared in accordance with GAAP and
should not be considered as substitutes for GAAP results. These
71 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents measures, retained premiums and fees, adjusted gross profit, and adjusted EBITDA, have not been calculated in accordance with GAAP and are therefore not necessarily indicative of our trends or profitability in accordance with GAAP. These measures exclude or otherwise adjust for certain cost items that are required by GAAP. Further, these measures may be defined and calculated differently than similarly-titled measures reported by other companies, making it difficult to compare our results with the results of other companies. We caution investors against undue reliance on our non-GAAP financial measures as a substitute for our results in accordance with GAAP. Management uses these non-GAAP financial measures, in conjunction with GAAP financial measures to: (i) monitor and evaluate the growth and performance of our business operations; (ii) facilitate internal comparisons of the historical operating performance of our business operations; (iii) facilitate external comparisons of the results of our overall business to the historical operating performance of other companies that may have different capital structures or operating histories; (iv) review and assess the performance of our management team and other employees; and (v) prepare budgets and evaluate strategic planning decisions regarding future operating investments.
Retained premiums and fees
The following presents our retained premiums and fees and reconciles the measure to our gross profit, the most closely comparable GAAP financial measure, for the periods indicated: Year Ended December 31, 2021 2020 (in thousands) Revenue
$ 558,043 $ 409,814Minus: Premiums retained by Third-Party Agents 298,445 220,143 Retained premiums and fees $ 259,598 $ 189,671
Direct labor 89,616 62,154 Provision for claims 21,335 15,337 Depreciation and amortization 10,321 5,815 Other direct costs(1) 35,065 20,535 Gross Profit
$ 103,261 $ 85,830________________
(1)Includes title examination expense, office supplies, and premium and other
Adjusted gross profit The following table reconciles our adjusted gross profit to our gross profit, the most closely comparable GAAP financial measure, for the periods indicated: Year Ended December 31, 2021 2020 (in thousands) Gross Profit
$ 103,261 $ 85,830Adjusted for: Depreciation and amortization 10,321 5,815 Adjusted Gross Profit $ 113,582 $ 91,645Adjusted EBITDA 72
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents The following table reconciles our adjusted EBITDA to our net loss, the most closely comparable GAAP financial measure, for the periods indicated: Year Ended December 31, 2021 2020 (in thousands) Net loss (GAAP)
$ (113,056) $ (35,103)Adjusted for: Depreciation and amortization 10,321 5,815 Interest expense 16,861 5,579 Income taxes 927 843 EBITDA $ (84,947) $ (22,866)Adjusted for: Stock-based compensation 20,046 2,495 COVID-related severance costs - 1,385 Change in fair value of warrant and sponsor covered shares liabilities (6,691) - Adjusted EBITDA $ (71,592) $ (18,986)
Liquidity and Capital Resources
We measure liquidity in terms of our ability to fund the cash requirements of our business operations, including our working capital and capital expenditure needs and other commitments. Our recurring working capital requirements relate mainly to our cash operating costs. Our capital expenditure requirements consist mainly of software development related to our Doma Intelligence platform. We had
$383.8 millionin cash and cash equivalents as of December 31, 2021. We believe our operating cash flows, together with our cash on hand, and the cash proceeds from the Business Combination and the related private placement, will be sufficient to meet our working capital and capital expenditure requirements for a period of at least 12 months from the date of this Annual Report. We may need additional cash due to changing business conditions or other developments, including unanticipated regulatory developments and competitive pressures. To the extent that our current resources are insufficient to satisfy our cash requirements, we may need to seek additional equity or debt financing.
Lennar seller financing note
As part of the North American Title Acquisition, Lennar issued us a note for
$87.0 millionon January 7, 2019with a maturity date of January 7, 2029. Cash interest on the note accrued at one-month LIBOR plus a fixed rate of 8.5% per annum on a "pay-in-kind" ("PIK") basis. Old Doma repaid the note in full in January 2021, after making several principal prepayments in 2019 and 2020.
Senior secured credit agreement
December 2020, Old Doma entered into a loan and security agreement with Hudson Structured Capital Management Ltd.("HSCM"), providing for a $150.0 millionsenior secured term loan ("Senior Debt"), which was fully funded by the lenders, which are affiliates of HSCM, at its principal face value on January 29, 2021(the "Funding Date") and matures on the fifth anniversary of the Funding Date. The Senior Debt bears interest at a rate of 11.25% per annum, of which 5.0% is payable in cash in arrears and the remaining 6.25% accrues to the outstanding principal balance on a PIK basis. Interest is payable or compounded, as applicable, quarterly. Principal prepayments on the Senior Debt are permitted, subject to a premium, which declines from 8% of principal today to 4% in 2023 and to zero in 2024. 73
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents The Senior Debt is secured by a first-priority pledge and security interest in substantially all of the assets of our wholly owned subsidiary States Title (which represents substantially all of our assets), including the assets of any of its existing and future domestic subsidiaries (in each case, subject to customary exclusions, including the exclusion of regulated insurance company subsidiaries). The Senior Debt is subject to customary affirmative and negative covenants, including limits on the incurrence of debt and restrictions on acquisitions, sales of assets, dividends and certain restricted payments. The Senior Debt is also subject to two financial maintenance covenants, related to liquidity and revenues. The liquidity covenant requires States Title to have at least
$20.0 millionof liquidity, calculated as of the last day of each month, as the sum of (i) our unrestricted cash and cash equivalents and (ii) the aggregate unused and available portion of any working capital or other revolving credit facility. The revenue covenant, which is tested as of the last day of each fiscal year, requires that States Title's consolidated GAAP revenue for the year to be greater than $130.0 million. The Senior Debt is subject to customary events of default and cure rights. As of December 31, 2021, States Title is in compliance with all Senior Debt covenants.
Upon funding, Old Doma issued penny warrants to affiliates of HSCM equal to
1.35% of Old Doma’s fully diluted shares. The warrants were net exercised on the
Closing Date and such affiliates of HSCM received the right to receive
approximately 4.2 million shares of our common stock.
Other commitments and contingencies
Our commitments for leases, related to our office space and equipment, amounted to
$37.8 millionas of December 31, 2021of which $9.4 millionis payable in 2022. Refer to Note 15 to our consolidated financial statements for a summary of our future commitments. Our headquarters lease expires in 2024. As of December 31, 2021, we did not have any other material commitments for cash expenditures. We also administer escrow deposits as a service to customers, a substantial portion of which are held at third-party financial institutions. Such deposits are not reflected on our balance sheet, but we could be contingently liable for them under certain circumstances (for example, if we dispose of escrowed assets). Such contingent liabilities have not materially impacted our results of operations or financial condition to date and are not expected to do so in the near term.
The following table summarizes our cash flows for the periods indicated:
December 31, 2021
(in thousands) Net cash used in operating activities
Net cash used in investing activities (23,128)
Net cash provided by financing activities 351,263 42,661 Operating Activities In 2021, net cash used in operating activities was
$56.3 milliondriven by the net loss of $113.1 million, cash paid for prepaid expenses of $6.2 millionand non-cash costs relating to the change in the fair value of warrant and Sponsor Covered Shares liabilities of $6.7 million. This was offset by increases of accrued expenses and other liabilities of $17.7 million, increases of the liability for loss and loss adjustment expenses of $10.5 million, non-cash stock-based compensation expense of $19.7 millionand non-cash depreciation and amortization of $10.3 million. In 2020, net cash used in operating activities was $9.3 milliondriven by the net loss of $35.1 millionand cash paid for prepaid expenses of $2.3 million. This was offset by increases of accrued expenses and other liabilities of $5.1 million, increases of the liability for loss and loss adjustment expenses of $7.0 million, non-cash paid in kind interest expense of $6.5 millionand non-cash depreciation and amortization of $5.8 million. 74 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents Investing Activities
Our capital expenditures have historically consisted mainly of costs incurred in
the development of the Doma Intelligence platform. Our other investing
activities generally consist of transactions in fixed maturity investment
securities to provide regular interest payments.
In 2021, net cash used in investing activities was
$23.1 million, and reflected $36.2 millionof purchases of investments offset by $44.3 millionof proceeds from the sale of investments. Cash paid for fixed assets was $32.2 millionin the same period, largely consisting of technology development costs related to the Doma Intelligence platform. In 2020, net cash used in investing activities was $63.0 millionand reflected $66.4 millionof purchases of investments offset by $18.8 millionof proceeds from the sale of investments. In the same period, cash paid for fixed assets was $17.0 million, largely consisting of technology development costs related to Doma Intelligence. We also received $1.6 millionfrom the sale of a title plant in the same period. Financing Activities Net cash provided by financing activities was $351.3 millionin 2021, reflecting $625.0 millionin proceeds from the Business Combination and PIPE Investment(as defined in Note 3) and $150.0 millionof proceeds from the Senior Debt. This increase was offset by $294.9 millionin redemptions of redeemable common and preferred stock and $66.0 millionin payment of costs directly attributable to the issuance of common stock in connection with Business Combination and PIPE Investment. The net cash provided by financing activities was also offset by the $65.5 millionrepayment of the Lennar seller financing note. Net cash provided by financing activities was $42.7 millionin 2020, reflecting $70.7 millionin proceeds from the issuance of Series C preferred stock, offset by a $28.4 millionpayment on the Lennar seller financing note.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with GAAP. Preparation of the financial statements requires management to make several judgments, estimates and assumptions relating to the reported amount of revenue and expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. We evaluate our significant estimates on an ongoing basis, including, but not limited to, liability for loss and loss adjustment expenses, goodwill and accrued net premiums written from Third-Party Agent referrals, and the Sponsor Covered Shares liability. We consider an accounting judgment, estimate or assumption to be critical when (1) the estimate or assumption is complex in nature or requires a high degree of judgment and (2) the use of different judgments, estimates and assumptions could have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements. Our significant accounting policies are described in Note 2 to our annual audited consolidated financial statements. Our critical accounting estimates are described below.
Liability for loss and loss adjustment expenses
Our liability for loss and loss adjustment expenses include mainly reserves for known claims as well as reserves for IBNR claims. Each known claim is reserved based on our estimate of the costs required to settle the claim. IBNR is a loss reserve that primarily reflects the sum of expected losses for unreported claims. The expense is calculated by applying a loss provision rate to total title insurance premiums. With the assistance of a third-party actuarial firm, we determine the loss provision rate for the policies written in the current and prior years. This assessment considers factors such as historical experience and other factors, including industry trends, claim loss history, legal environment, geographic considerations and the types of title insurance policies written (i.e., real estate purchase or refinancing transactions). The loss provision rate is set to provide for losses on current year policies, but due to development of prior years and our long claim duration, it periodically includes amounts of estimated adverse or positive development on prior years' policies. The provision rate on prior year policies will continue to change as actual experience on those specific policy years develop. As the Company's claims experience matures, we refine estimates on prior policy years to put more consideration to the Company's actual claims experience as compared to industry experience. Changes in the loss provision rate for recent policy years are considered likely and could result 75 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents in a material adjustment to the IBNR reserves. For example, a 50 basis point increase or decrease in the current estimated 2021 loss provision rate would result in a
$2.8 millioncorresponding increase or decrease to IBNR. The estimates used require considerable judgment and are established as management's best estimate of future outcomes, however, the amount of IBNR reserved based on these estimates could ultimately prove to be inadequate to cover actual future claims experience. We continually monitor for any events and/or circumstances that arise during the year which may indicate that the assumptions used to record the provision for claims estimate requires reassessment. Our total loss reserve as of December 31, 2021amounted to $80.3 million, which we believe, based on historical claims experience and actuarial analyses, is adequate to cover claim losses resulting from pending and future claims for policies issued through December 31, 2021.
A summary of the Company’s loss reserves is as follows:
Year Ended December 31, 2021 2020 ($ in thousands) Known title claims
$ 7,5789 % $ 4,7277 % IBNR title claims 72,621 90 % 64,390 92 % Total title claims $ 80,19999 % $ 69,11799 % Non-title claims 68 1 % 683 1 % Total loss reserves $ 80,267100 % $ 69,800100 %
We continually review and adjust our reserve estimates to reflect loss
experience and any new information that becomes available.
We have significant goodwill on our balance sheet related to acquisitions as goodwill represents the excess of the acquisition price over the fair value of net assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination.
Goodwillis tested and reviewed annually for impairment on October 1of each year, and between annual tests if events or circumstances arise that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of any one of our reporting units below its respective carrying amount. In addition, an interim impairment test may be completed upon a triggering event or when there is a reorganization of reporting structure or disposal of all or a portion of a reporting unit. As of December 31, 2021, we had $111.5 millionof goodwill, relating to the North American Title Acquisition, of which $88.1 millionand $23.4 millionwas allocated to our Distribution and Underwriting reporting units, respectively. In performing our annual goodwill impairment test, we first perform a qualitative assessment, which requires that we consider significant estimates and assumptions regarding macroeconomic conditions, industry and market considerations, cost factors, overall financial performance, changes in management or key personnel, changes in strategy, changes in customers, changes in the composition or carrying amount of a reporting unit or other factors that have the potential to impact fair value. If, after assessing the totality of events and circumstances, we determine that it is more likely than not that the fair values of our reporting units are greater than the carrying amounts, then the quantitative goodwill impairment test is not performed, as goodwill is not considered to be impaired. However, if we determine that the fair value of a reporting unit is more likely than not to be less than its carrying value, then a quantitative assessment is performed. For the quantitative assessment, the determination of estimated fair value of our reporting units requires us to make assumptions about future discounted cash flows, including profit margins, long-term forecasts, discount rates and terminal growth rates and, if possible, a comparable market transaction model. If, based upon the quantitative assessment, the reporting unit fair value is less than the carrying amount, a goodwill impairment is recorded equal to the difference between the carrying amount of the reporting unit's goodwill and its fair value, not to exceed the carrying value of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit, and a corresponding impairment loss is recorded in the consolidated statements of operations. 76 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents We conducted our annual goodwill impairment test as of October 1, 2021. We determined, after performing a qualitative review of each reporting unit, that the fair value of each reporting unit exceeded its respective carrying value. Accordingly, there was no indication of impairment and the quantitative goodwill impairment test was not performed. We did not identify any events, changes in circumstances, or triggering events since the performance of our annual goodwill impairment test that would require us to perform an interim goodwill impairment test during the year.
Accrued net premiums written from Third-Party Agent referrals
We recognize revenues on title insurance policies issued by Third-Party Agents when notice of issuance is received from Third-Party Agents, which is generally when cash payment is received. In addition, we estimate and accrue for revenues on policies sold but not reported by Third-Party Agents as of the relevant balance sheet closing date. This accrual is based on historical transactional volume data for title insurance policies that have closed and were not reported before the relevant balance sheet closing, as well as trends in our operations and in the title and housing industries. There could be variability in the amount of this accrual from period to period and amounts subsequently reported to us by Third-Party Agents may differ from the estimated accrual recorded in the preceding period. If the amount of revenue subsequently reported to us by Third-Party Agents is higher or lower than our estimate, we record the difference in revenue in the period in which it is reported. The time lag between the closing of transactions by Third-Party Agents and the reporting of policies, or premiums from policies issued by Third-Party Agents to us has been approximately three months. In addition to the premium accrual, we also record accruals for the corresponding direct expenses related to this revenue, including premiums retained by Third-Party Agents, premium taxes, and provision for claims.
Sponsor Covered Shares liability
The Sponsor Covered Shares, as described in Note 3, will become vested contingent upon the price of our common stock exceeding certain thresholds or upon some strategic events, which include events that are not indexed to our common stock. We obtained a third-party valuation of the Sponsor Covered Shares as of
July 28, 2021(i.e., the Closing Date) and December 31, 2021using the Monte Carlo simulation methodology and based upon market inputs regarding stock price, dividend yield, expected term, volatility and risk-free rate. The share price represents the trading price as of each valuation date. The expected dividend yield is zero as we have never declared or paid cash dividends and have no current plans to do so during the expected term. The expected term represents the vesting period, which is 9.6 years years. The expected volatility of 55.0% was calculated based on the average of (i) the Doma implied volatility calculated using longest term stock option. (ii) the Doma implied warrant volatility using the term of the Public and Private Warrants and (iii) median leverage adjusted (asset) volatility calculated using a set of Guideline Public Companies ("GPCs"). Volatility for the GPCs was calculated over a lookback period of 9.6 years years (or longest available data for GPCs whose trading history was shorter than 9.6 years years), commensurate with the contractual term of the Sponsor Covered Shares. The risk-free rate utilizes the 10-year U.S.Constant Maturity. Finally, the annual change in control probability is estimated to be 2.0%.
New Accounting Pronouncements
For information about recently issued accounting pronouncements, refer to Note 2
to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this filing.
Emerging Growth Company Accounting Election
Section 102(b)(1) of the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the "JOBS Act") exempts emerging growth companies from being required to comply with new or revised financial accounting standards until private companies (that is, those that have not had a Securities Act registration statement declared effective or do not have a class of securities registered under the Exchange Act) are required to comply with the new or revised financial accounting standards. The JOBS Act provides that a company can elect to opt out of the extended transition period 77
Table of Contents and comply with the requirements that apply to non-emerging growth companies but any such election to opt out is irrevocable. The Company has elected not to opt out of such extended transition period which means that when a standard is issued or revised and it has different application dates for public or private companies, the Company, as an emerging growth company, can adopt the new or revised standard at the time private companies adopt the new or revised standard. This may make comparison of the Company's financial statements with another public company which is neither an emerging growth company nor an emerging growth company which has opted out of using the extended transition period difficult or impossible because of the potential differences in accounting standards used.